By David W. Chapman
David W. Chapman examines moment Temple and early rabbinic literature and fabric is still so one can reveal the diversity of historical Jewish perceptions approximately crucifixion. Early Christian literature is then proven to mirror knowledge of, and interplay with, those Jewish perceptions. historic Jewish ancient money owed of crucifixion are tested, magical literature is analyzed, and the proverbial use of crucifixion imagery is studied. He can pay certain cognizance to Jewish interpretations of key previous testomony texts that point out human physically suspension in organization with execution. past stories have tested how pervasive in antiquity was once the view of the move as a negative and shameful dying. during this quantity, the writer presents extra proof of such perspectives in old Jewish groups. extra optimistic perceptions may be connected to crucifixion insofar because the loss of life will be linked to the blameless patient or martyr in addition to with latent sacrificial photographs. Christian literature, proclaiming a crucified Messiah, betrays understanding of those numerous perceptions by way of trying to reject or remodel detrimental stereotypes, or via embracing a few of these extra confident institutions. hence early Christian literature at the pass shows, to a better measure than is usually well-known, a mirrored image upon some of the Jewish perceptions of the move in antiquity
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Extra resources for Ancient Jewish and Christian perceptions of crucifixion
However, apart from the scant support, internal criteria would suggest that this one manuscript is actually seeking to bring the Targum back into agreement with the Mishnah (or at least back into agreement with Ruth Rabbah 2:24 [on Ruth 1:17] which reads pjm). Perhaps this manuscript even 96 97 98 99 9 6 A similar point could b e m a d e regarding the Sifre Num. 131 citation in Baumgarten, "TLH in the T e m p l e Scroll," 476n. Travers Herford defends the identification with Jesus in R. Travers Herford, Christianity in Talmud and Midrash (London: Williams & Norgate, 1903), 7 9 - 8 3 (cf.
Paris: A . et J. Picard, 1939/1953), 2:85. However, various scholars favour emending the text of 1 Sam 31:10 (and 1 Chron 10:10) to read lUpil or some similar form from Up* , which would again m a k e appeal to 1 Sam 31:10 possible; see esp. Julius Wellhausen, Der Text der Bücher Samuelis (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1871), 148^49; Henry Preserved Smith, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Books of Samuel, ICC (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1899), 2 5 3 ; Karl Budde, Die Bücher Samuel, K H C 8 (Tübingen: J.
Mes 59b ("if there is a case of hanging in a family record" - this contains a possible double entendre with crucifixion and suspension of a 1 0 5 1 0 6 2. Crucifixion 27 Terminology However, it is necessary to qualify the above by noting that the vast majority of instances of ηρτ in the Bavli are more mundane - referring to the elevation, erection, or suspension of some other object. And likewise KEPpî can also speak generally of something erect or upright. Thus it is better to conceive of 2*72 in a relation of hyponymy with *]pî rather than in one of synonymy.