Download A History of Online Information Services, 1963-1976 by Charles P. Bourne PDF

By Charles P. Bourne

Each box of historical past has a simple desire for a close chronology of what occurred: who did what while. within the absence of the sort of source, fanciful money owed flourish. This booklet offers a wealthy narrative of the early improvement of on-line details retrieval platforms and providers, from 1963 to 1976--a interval vital to an individual who makes use of a seek engine, on-line catalog, or huge database. Drawing on own adventure, wide learn, and interviews with the various key members, the ebook describes the contributors, initiatives, and associations of the interval. It additionally corrects many universal blunders and misconceptions and gives milestones for lots of of the numerous advancements in on-line platforms and know-how.

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Schwartz had also participated in developing the TSS, described earlier. Schwartz’s assignment for the contract had been to develop “a ‘higher-order’ programming language that would permit writing of programs in ‘near-English,’ in code that was independent of a particular machine, and in statements that were expanded automatically to a number of machine instructions” (Baum 1981, 55). The time pressure, the particular requirements of the application, and the fact that no major infor- 21 mation system had ever been coded in other than machine or assembly language were all huge challenges for Schwartz and his twelve-member programming team.

The project also aimed to produce a practical system for reading, writing, and answering questions in natural English. Therefore, one Synthex task was to create an experimental questionanswering program that accepted questions expressed in natural language. The prototype, called Protosynthex I (prototype Synthex),2 was a primitive species of Synthex, and was the creation of the psychologist Simmons, programmer analyst Keren McConlogue, and Sheldon Klein, who at the time was working on his doctorate in linguistics.

System Development Corporation (SDC) The origins of SDC of Santa Monica, California, were at Rand Corporation. In the early 1950s, a scientific research study was conducted at Rand “to investigate the problems associated with man’s information needs in a complex system environment,” specifically, “new techniques useful in manual air defense system training” (System development study, 1966, 111). Because the work seemed to be leading to an important new technology, Rand’s Board of Trustees established a new, independent organization to concentrate on its development.

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